The 3D printing industry is a relatively young and ripe industry, one with unlimited potential, but also limited knowledge. One area that needs improvement is the filament market, especially when it comes to desktop 3D printing. While many producers are working tirelessly to bring you a flurry of enhanced and exotic filaments, there is still a lot of work to decipher what print settings will bring out the best of these materials.

Although the globally engaged Filaments.directory user base is helping to bring these optimized settings to light, the Russian filament manufacturer REC is doing the groundwork for their customers. Striving to ensure that their materials offer the most robust and strongest possible qualities, REC has collaborated with the Moscow Center for Testing, Certification and Standardization of Functional Materials and Technologies to help them provide comprehensive filament testing to their users.

The following case study focuses on one of the most critical aspects of professional filament use, layer-to-layer adhesion, which is what gives a material superior tensile strength. The following article showcases the tensile strength values of different plastics when they’re subjected to interlayer stresses. Before we get into their research, we’d like to freshen you up with a little background information on the methods and findings they’re put forth.

REC's layer-to-layer bonding strength testing

The Moscow Center for Testing, Certification and Standardization of Functional Materials and Technologies utilized three measuring instruments: an electromechanical universal testing machine, a non-contact extensometer, and a digital caliper. The characteristics evaluated in the following article include tensile strength, tensile modulus, and elongation of break. They tested five different filaments: REC RELAX, REC PLA, REC HIPS, REC ETERNAL, and REC ABS.

While the following case study delves into a limited range of materials, it will still educate you on the different testing methods used to breakdown material strength, as well as how vital it is to offer robustness and strength in a FDM 3D printing filaments.

A lot of people familiar with 3D printing technologies wonder just how robust 3D printed items are. REC always responds to client needs, strives to perfect the quality of its products and aims to provide detailed product data.

Many of our customers question tensile strength with regard to layer-to-layer adhesion. For some of them this issue is of such importance that layer bonding serves as a key factor in choosing an appropriate filament.

We have turned to the Moscow Center for Testing, Certification and Standardization of Functional materials and Technologies for help with comprehensive material testing. This article provides tensile strength values of different plastics when subjected to interlayer stresses.

Following measuring instruments were used during tests: Electromechanical universal testing machine Tinius Olsen 300ST rated at 300 kN, serial number ST-AF-00278GB.

Tinius Olsen 300ST

Non-contact extensometer VETO, LENS-MT010, serial number 503351562.

VETO LENS-MT010

Digital caliper SHAN, measurement range: 0-150 mm, serial number 11118028.

Digital caliper SHAN

Test parameters:

  • Active gripper movement speed: 2 mm per minute
  • Temperature: -24°С (-11.2°F)

А Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) 3D printer was used to manufacture paddle-like samples, seven for each of various plastics tested. These samples were 3D printed vertically in order to distribute layers across the longitudinal axis.

Evaluated characteristics:

  • Tensile strength (MPa)
  • Tensile modulus (GPa)
  • Elongation at break (%)

Detailed test results for our plastics are as follows:

1. REC Relax test results

REC Relax test results

 

Tensile strength (MPa)

Tensile modulus (GPa)

Elongation at break (%)

Median value

33.6

1.73

2.41

Standard deviation

1.0

0.13

 0.22

Relative standard deviation (%)

3.1

7.4

9.3

REC Relax test results

REC Relax test results

REC Relax test results

2. REC ENTERNAL test results

REC ENTERNAL test results

 

Tensile strength (MPa)

Tensile modulus (GPa)

Elongation at break (%)

Median value

22.5

1.86

1.44

Standard deviation

1.6

0.08

 0.15

Relative standard deviation (%)

7.3

4.1

10.5

REC ENTERNAL test results

REC ENTERNAL test results

REC ENTERNAL test results

3. REC PLA test results

REC PLA test results

 

Tensile strength (MPa)

Tensile modulus (GPa)

Elongation at break (%)

Median value

31.2

3.07

1.11

Standard deviation

2.6

0.20

 0.15

Relative standard deviation (%)

8.2

6.5

13.4

REC PLA test results

REC PLA test results

REC PLA test results

4. REC HIPS test results

REC HIPS test results

 

Tensile strength (MPa)

Tensile modulus (GPa)

Elongation at break (%)

Median value

29.6

1.27

4.23

Standard deviation

2.3

0.10

 0.42

Relative standard deviation (%)

7.7

7.81

9.98

REC HIPS test results

REC HIPS test results

REC HIPS test results

5. REC ABS test results

REC ABS test results

 

Tensile strength (MPa)

Tensile modulus (GPa)

Elongation at break (%)

Median value

19.7

2.34

0.88

Standard deviation

2.8

0.16

 0.16

Relative standard deviation (%)

14.3

7.0

18.1

REC ABS test results

REC ABS test results

REC ABS test results

Here are our winners in descending order:

  1. REC RELAX with a score of 33.6 MPa
  2. REC PLA with a score of 31.2 MPa
  3. REC HIPS with a score of 29.6 MPa
  4. REC ETERNAL with a score of 22.5 MPa
  5. REC ABS with a score of 19.7 MPa

To sum it up, all of REC plastics exhibit high layer-to-layer bonding, but the most robust items can be printed with REC RELAX and REC PLA.

Remember, we are always eager to provide interesting data in order to help you with your projects! REC – by makers for makers!

E-mail: world@rec3d.ru
Phone: +7 (499) 348 1590
Office address: Russia, Moscow, Godovikova st., 9, building 1, entrance 1.19, office 2.3. Industrial park “Kalibr”.

Also you could find any our products in:

Please visit our interesting instagram channel where you could find a lot of 3D printed cases printed with our materials and just for meeting with our company: www.instagram.com/rec3dcompany

Thank you for your time and happy printing!